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Karim van Knippenberg

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218 pages

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The integration of heritage as a resource in spatial planning, and the increasing calls for community-heritage engagement, bring several challenges for heritage management and for those dealing with heritage. Most notably while questions about the nature of heritage are being asked more often. This thesis has provided several clues on answers to these challenges.

This thesis argues that heritage management should be fundamentally community (and communities' values) oriented. In various cases it appeared that incorporating communities' heritage values was the way to make heritage more resilient in a complex world of continually changing values. Next, heritage management could be more flexible and adaptive not only in terms of better differentiation of policy and management to incorporate differences in different contexts or locations, but also flexible and adaptive in terms of changing heritage values over time. And, in line with the above two, this thesis furthermore argues that spatial (re)developments could be more embedded in local histories, heritage values, and better connected to local communities' needs. These three main recommendations can be summarised as a plea for heritage approaches that focus on expressions of heritage such that heritage becomes a manifestation of continuous processes of valuation and revaluation and as something that is always involved in the process of 'making'.